After you've installed your Apache Web server, you probably will need to perform some configuration tasks specific to your needs. In this article, Rich Bowen covers the most common configuration tasks and how to accomplish them.
Most of your server configuration is done in the server configuration
files, after you have installed Apache. However, the things that you are able
to configure are largely decided when you install the server. That is, if you
don't install a particular module, then you cannot configure the things that
that module control.
In the configuration stage, before you compile your Apache server, you
decide what modules you want installed, where you want files to get put, and a
variety of other things. You can also specify various things that get set in
the server configuration files, which you can then change afterwards.
In this week's column, we'll talk about some of the things that you can do
configure utility, so that Apache gets installed exactly
the way that you want it.
For a basic Apache installation, using all the default settings, simply
follow the instructions that you see near the top of the
tar -zxf apache_1.3.12.tar.gz
And of course, even that does not accept all the defaults, because we are
specifying where we want the files to be put.
PREFIX is not
actually the literal string
PREFIX, but is the directory under
which you want Apache installed, such as
If you simply run
configure, without providing any arguments,
Apache warns you:
Configuring for Apache, Version 1.3.12
+ Warning: Configuring Apache with default settings.
+ This is probably not what you really want.
+ Please read the README.configure and INSTALL files
+ first or at least run './configure --help' for
+ a compact summary of available options.
When we type
configure --help, we get several pages of
options. Many of them will not be covered in this article, but several of them
are remarkably useful.
--show-layout option tells you where Apache will put files
when it installs. Running with this option does not actually do anything, it
just figures out where everything will wind up if you did configure
with the particular options you have selected. This is particularly useful when
you are experimenting with various different configurations, and don't want to
actually install them to see what they will end up looking like.
--sysconfdir option lets you specify where the server
configuration files will live. With a default installation, there will be a
conf subdirectory under the main server root directory, which will
contain these files. However, some folks like for all their configuration files
of any kind to be located in
/etc, and so you might want to do:
--htdocsdir sets the location where web documents will be stored,
and served from. If, for example, you install Apache from the RPM (Red Hat
Package Manager) file, you will find that the document directory is located in
/home/httpd/html, while the other files are located at various
other places around the system.
There are also a number of directives like the last few, which let you set
the location of files.
--iconsdir sets the location of the icon
--sbindir set the locations of
the binary executables, and so on.
My personal preference is to install all of Apache in one location
, to be specific) and then just make symlinks
from other locations. For example, system log files are located in
, so it might make sense to have the Apache log files
there also. However, instead of using a
configuration option, I simply create
a symbolic link from
ln -s /usr/local/apache/logs httpd
This is also handy for your log rotate scripts, which expect log files to
/var/log and subdirectories thereof.
You can tell Apache what modules to build and activate with configuration
options. In a default configuration, some modules are enabled, and others are
not. To change this default configuration, you can use the
The default configuration is as follows:
[access=yes actions=yes alias=yes ]
[asis=yes auth=yes auth_anon=no ]
[auth_db=no auth_dbm=no auth_digest=no ]
[autoindex=yes cern_meta=no cgi=yes ]
[digest=no dir=yes env=yes ]
[example=no expires=no headers=no ]
[imap=yes include=yes info=no ]
[log_agent=no log_config=yes log_referer=no ]
[mime=yes mime_magic=no mmap_static=no ]
[negotiation=yes proxy=no rewrite=no ]
[setenvif=yes so=no speling=no ]
[status=yes unique_id=no userdir=yes ]
[usertrack=no vhost_alias=no ]
./configure --prefix=/home/httpd --enable-module=speling --disable-module=userdir
If you wish to build a particular module as a shared object you can use the
--enable-shared option. For example:
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache --enable-module=rewrite --enable-shared=rewrite
To compile and enable a module that is not part of the standard Apache
distribution, you can use the
--activate-module options. For example:
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/apache --add-module=/home/rbowen/mods/mod_mine.c
As I mentioned in my last column, there are two ways to configure your
Apache build. There's the method describe above, and then there's the
"old-fashioned" manual process. In the
is a script called
Configure (big C), which uses a file called
Configuration to configure your build. A sample
Configuration file, called
with Apache. And when you run
configure (small c), a configuration
Configuration.apaci is generated, and is then used by
Configure (big C) to configure the build.
If you open up
, you'll see the
configuration options that you entered, converted into a format that is usable
. You can manually change any of these options to
modify the configuration, and then rerun
to make the
makefiles again, like so:
./Configure -file Configuration.apaci
This is particularly useful if you want to experiment with different build
configurations. Or, as in my case, if you need to support several different
customers, and want to mirror their Apache installation as closely as possible.
You can simply save several different versions of your
Configuration file, and then rebuild using the one that you like.
The format of the
Configuration files is fairly
self-explanatory, and they are heavily commented, which should help you figure
out what you need to do. Also, read the file
INSTALL, also located
The complete resource on using
README.configure, which is in the top directory when you unpack
the Apache source tarball. It gives you all the available commandline options,
and gives a few examples of common configurations.
And for more information about
INSTALL in the
Rich Bowen is the Director of Web Application Development at The Creative Group and the author of Apache Server Unleashed.