Need to make a single DSL connection look like a colocation facility? Then you'll want to look at setting up virtual hosts -- Web sites with
different names that all run on the same server hardware. Rich Bowen explains three different methods of setting up virtual hosts on your Apache server.
As suggested in the paragraph above, virtual hosts are Web sites with
different names that all run on the same server hardware. The idea is that
Apache knows which site you are trying to get, even though they are all on the
same server, and gives you content from the right one.
It's this trick that lets me run several Web sites on my home machine, from
a variety of different domain names, and several names within one domain, so
that my one little machine behind my DSL link looks like a room full of
servers. Neat trick.
Well, you probably already have some ideas in mind. But here's how I
generally use virtual hosts. I work for a Web-design company, and when we're
developing a customer site, we set up a virtual host specially for that
company. These are usually name-based, since these are faster to set up (one
step shorter), and are almost always internal only. That is, the names are put
into our internal DNS, so that internal hosts can see the Web sites, but
external browsers see only the boring, featureless external page on our
The advantages to doing this are numerous. It lets us set the directory
structure on the site the same way that it will be on the real server when we
are done with development. It lets us keep fines completely separate from one
"server" and another, so that there is no confusion as to what is on
which site. And, from the developers' perspective, it lets them set up
completely different sites in DreamWeaver, rather than just different
subdirectories on the same site.
And, of course, you don't have to have a new server for each site, no matter
how many customer projects you're working on at one time. Which is the biggest
reason for using virtual hosts in any scenario.
Virtual hosts can be specified one of two ways. These are configuration
differences on the server, and are not visible to the client--that is, there is
no way that the user can tell what sort of virtual host they are using. Or even
that they are using a virtual host, for that matter.
The two types are IP-based virtual hosting and name-based
virtual hosting. In a nutshell, the difference is that IP-based virtual hosts
have a different IP address for each virtual host, while name-based virtual
hosts have the same IP address, but use different names for each one. There are
reasons for each. There's not much difference in implementation.
In IP-based virtual hosting, you are running more than one web site on the
same server machine, but each web site has its own IP address. In order to do
this, you have to first tell your operating system about the multiple IP
addresses. Most modern operating systems let you give your machine as many IP
addresses as you want. The specific details of how you give your machine
multiple IP addresses varies from OS to OS, and I'm not going to go into that
right now. If you don't know how to accomplish this on your OS, you might want
to consult your local guru. It's typically not very difficult. Or, you may just
want to skip down to the section on name-based virtual hosts.
On older operating systems, it was sometimes even necessary to have one NIC
(network interface card) per IP address, but that is almost never the case any
Once you have given your machine multiple IP addresses, you will need to put
each IP in your DNS, so that it will resolve to the names that you want to give
those addresses. Again, I'm not going to go into the details of setting up DNS
records. You should contact the person that is responsible for your DNS server
to get these records put in place.
Now, the part that directly relates to Apache. Assuming that you have all
the IP addresses on your machine, and each IP address has a DNS record for it,
you'll put the following information in your Apache
For this discussion, I'll assume that you have 3 IP addresses, and that
you've given them the names name1.mydomain.com,
name2.mydomain.com, and name3.mydomain.com. You can, however,
given them names from entirely different domains, such as
The addition to your
httpd.conf file will look like:
Notice that you don't need to configure everything for each virtual
host. Whatever you don't specify, it will inherit from the main server
configuration. For example, you'll notice that on the second virtual host, I
did not specify a location for the server logs. This virtual host will log to
the main server log files.
Notice also that in the third section, I specify a CGI directory. All the
other sections will default to using the cgi directory specified in the main
server configuration, when a URL is accessed containing
because it has not been specified in the virtual host configuration section.
Almost any configuration directive is valid inside a VirtualHost section. In
the server documentation, you'll notice that each directive says where it is
valid, and it should be pretty clear whether or not you can put a particular
directive in one of these sections.
Remember to test your new configuration files before restarting your server:
Another handy tip, which also applies to name-based virtual hosts, is to use
ServerAlias directive. When accessing a server internally, on
your LAN, you'll often want to use the server's short name, eg
"name2", rather than the full name "name2.mydomain.com."
ServerAlias ensures that you don't get an unexpected
page when trying to use that short name. Apache has no way to know that
"name2" and "name2.mydomain.com" are actually the same Web
Once you restart your server to reload the configuration file, Apache will
figure out, based on the URL that you typed in, which web site you are trying
to access, and will serve you the right page based on that information. Even
though they are all on the same physical machine. Pretty cool, huh?
Of course, sometimes, you don't have the luxury of giving your machine
multiple IP addresses. IP addresses are in shorter and shorter supply, and
frequently, such as if you have an DSL connection as I do, you only have one.
In this case, name-based virtual hosting is for you.
You don't have to give your machine multiple IP addresses, but you will
still have to contact the person that is responsible for your DNS server, and
have them put more than one DNS record in for your machine. These extra records
are called C-records, or CNames. (The main record pointing at a machine is
called the AName, or A-record.) You can have as many CNames as you like
pointing to a particular machine.
Once you have your DNS configured to send traffic to you for all these
names, you'll need to do the following in your server configuration file:
Once again, as in the IP-based virtual hosts, you can put any directive you
want in these sections. I've kept them all pretty simple.
There are several things to note here.
First, you must specify, with the
what IP address should be responding to virtual host requests. You can use
IP-based and name-based virtual hosting in conjunction - that is, you can do
both on the same server at the same time. So you must specify which addresses
you're using for this. I'll frequently set up virtual hosts on the internal and
external interface of a server (intranet servers and internet servers, that is)
and so you must specify both addresses:
Furthermore, you can run virtual hosts on different ports, as well as
different addresses, if you really want to complicate things:
Just make sure that all the names make it into DNS, or you might end up
serving a page that you were not intending to.
The magic for the virtual host stuff is that the browser tells the server
what server it is requesting content from. There are still some older browsers
in use that don't do this correctly, and so they might get content from the
"default" server on your machine. This is almost never a real
consideration, since any browser produced in the last five years (perhaps even
before that--I tend to lose track of time these days) has this ability. There
are work-arounds in Apache so that it will work for even these browsers, but
I'll let you research that on your own, if you really want to. Start at
and go from there.
There's actually a third alternative. You can run completely separate server
daemons on your server machine and have each one serving a separate Web site.
The downside of this is that each one must run on a different port,
since you can't have multiple services listening on the same port at the same
You can get a server to run with a particular configuration file with the
-f command-line option:
/usr/local/apache/bin/apache -f /usr/local/apache/conf/name2_httpd.conf
This lets you start as many server daemons as your machine can stand, each
one running a different server configuration. Make sure, of course, that each
configuration file has a
Port directive pointing at a different
port, or every one after the first one will fail to start, giving you an error
Could not bind to port 80: Port already in use.
Virtual hosts let you run multiple Web sites on the same physical server
machine. The advantages of this are numerous, and can be summed up for your
boss as "we don't have to buy another machine for the 18 other Web sites
you want to run."
Please let me know if there are other topics that you'd like for me to talk
about in future columns. You can send your suggestions to me at
ApacheToday@rcbowen.com And please
let me know what you think of my columns, at that same address. Many thanks for
reading down this far!